HDL cholesterol levels and endothelial glycocalyx integrity in treated hypertensive patients

Abstract Endothelial dysfunction indicates target organ damage in hypertensive patients. The integrity of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) plays a vital role in vascular permeability, inflammation and elasticity, and finally to cardiovascular disease. The authors aimed to investigate the role of increased HDL cholesterol (HDL‐C) levels, which usually are considered protective against cardiovascular disease, in EG integrity in older hypertensive patients….

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Association of impaired endothelial glycocalyx with arterial stiffness, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, and abnormal myocardial deformation in untreated hypertensives

Abstract We investigated the association of endothelial glycocalyx damage with arterial stiffness, impairment of coronary microcirculatory function, and LV myocardial deformation in 320 untreated hypertensives and 160 controls. We measured perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual microvessels, a marker inversely related with glycocalyx thickness, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and Global Longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, pulse wave velocity…

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Sublingual functional capillary rarefaction in chronic heart failure

Abstract Background and objective: Microcirculatory changes contribute to clinical symptoms and disease progression in chronic heart failure (CHF). A depression of coronary flow reserve is associated with a lower myocardial capillary density in biopsies. We hypothesized that changes in cardiac microcirculation might also be reflected by a systemic reduction in capillaries and visualized by sublingual videomicroscopy. The aim was…

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Bedside analysis of the sublingual microvascular glycocalyx in the emergency room and intensive care unit – the GlycoNurse study

Abstract Background: Deterioration of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), a protective carbohydrate-rich layer lining the luminal surface of the endothelium, plays a key role in vascular barrier dysfunction and eventually organ-failure in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Early detection of glycocalyx damage could thus become an important goal in critical care. This study was designed to determine the feasibility…

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Acute ischemic injury to the renal microvasculature in human kidney transplantation

Abstract Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury in renal transplantation may lead to novel therapies that improve early graft function. Therefore, we studied the renal microcirculation in ischemically injured kidneys from donors after cardiac death (DCD) and in living donor kidneys with minimal ischemia. During transplant surgery, peritubular capillaries were visualized by sidestream darkfield imaging….

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Effect of sulodexide on endothelial glycocalyx and vascular permeability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract Aims/hypothesis Endothelial glycocalyx perturbation contributes to increased vascular permeability. In the present study we set out to evaluate whether: (1) glycocalyx is perturbed in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and (2) oral glycocalyx precursor treatment improves glycocalyx properties. Methods Male participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and controls (n = 10) were evaluated before and after 2 months of…

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Methods for evaluating endothelial function: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripheral Circulation

Abstract The endothelium holds a pivotal role in cardiovascular health and disease. Assessment of its function was until recently limited to experimental designs due to its location. The advent of novel techniques has facilitated testing on a more detailed basis, with focus on distinct pathways. This review presents available in-vivo and ex-vivo methods for evaluating endothelial function with special…

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Damage of the Endothelial Glycocalyx in Dialysis Patients

Abstract Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, which helps maintain vascular homeostasis, heightens the sensitivity of the vasculature to atherogenic stimuli. Patients with renal failure have endothelial dysfunction and increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the state of the endothelial glycocalyx in these patients is unknown. Here, we used Sidestream Darkfield imaging to detect changes in glycocalyx dimension…

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Sublingual Microvascular Glycocalyx Dimensions in Lacunar Stroke Patients

Abstract Background: Cerebral small vessel disease is thought to result from endothelial dysfunction. The glycocalyx, lining the endothelium, is a major determinant of endothelial function. The glycocalyx is partially accessible to flowing red blood cells at its luminal side, called the perfused boundary region (PBR). Glycocalyx damage results in increased PBR, which can be measured in the sublingual microvasculature….

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Non-invasive assessment of microvascular dysfunction in families with premature coronary artery disease

Introduction: Individuals with a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Since current risk algorithms poorly predict risk, especially in younger individuals, novel methods are needed to assess cardiovascular risk in these families. Recently, microvascular function (using imaging of the sublingual microvasculature with videomicroscopy) was put forward as an indicator of vascular vulnerability…

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