Mutations in the heparan sulfate backbone elongating enzymes EXT1 and EXT2 have no major effect on endothelial glycocalyx and the glomerular filtration barrier

Abstract In this study, the effect of heterozygous germline mutations in the heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chain co-polymerases EXT1 and EXT2 on glomerular barrier function and the endothelial glycocalyx in humans is investigated. Heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are deemed essential to the glomerular filtration barrier, including the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. Animal studies have shown that loss of HS results…

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Microvascular rarefaction in patients with cerebrovascular events

Abstract Capillary density rarefaction and endothelial dysfunction contribute to chronic hypoperfusion and cerebral small vessel disease. Previous animal experiments revealed spatiotemporal microvascular remodeling directing post-stroke brain reorganization. We hypothesized that microcirculatory changes during acute cerebrovascular events could be reflected systemically and visualized sublingually. In a prospective observational trial in vivo sublingual sidestream darkfield videomicroscopy was performed in twenty-one patients…

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Endothelial glycocalyx and microvascular perfusion are associated with carotid intima-media thickness and impaired myocardial deformation in psoriatic disease

Abstract Psoriatic disease is associated with vascular and myocardial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate endothelial glycocalyx barrier properties and microvascular perfusion in psoriatic patients, as well as their correlation with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and markers of left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation. We examined 297 psoriatic patients and 150 controls, adjusted for age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. The…

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Association of Gestational Diabetes With Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease on Echocardiogram and Endothelial Function Testing

Abstract Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The subclinical cardiovascular structural and functional changes that contribute to long-term cardiovascular risk are unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that GDM is associated with adverse cardiovascular remodeling, diastolic function abnormalities, and endothelial dysfunction at approximately a decade after delivery, thereby increasing CVD risk. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional…

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Impaired Endothelial Glycocalyx Predicts Adverse Outcome in Subjects Without Overt Cardiovascular Disease: a 6-Year Follow-up Study

Abstract We investigated whether disturbance of glycocalyx integrity is related with increased cardiovascular risk. In 600 healthy subjects, we measured perfused boundary region (PBR), a marker of glycocalyx integrity, in sublingual microvessels with diameter ranging 5–25 µm using a dedicated camera (Sideview Darkfield Imaging). Increased PBR indicates reduced glycocalyx thickness. We prospectively monitored the occurrence of cardiovascular events (MACE-death,…

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Endothelial glycocalyx integrity and microvascular perfusion are associated with novel echocardiographic markers and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with psoriasis

Abstract Background/Introduction Psoriasis has been associated with vascular and myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of inflammation and oxidative stress. Purpose We aimed to evaluate sublingual microvascular perfusion and glycocalyx barrier properties in psoriasis patients, as well as their correlation with coronary microcirculatory function and markers of myocardial deformation and atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, cIMT). Methods We examined 297 patients with…

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Apremilast improves endothelial glycocalyx and microvascular perfusion: a possible protective mechanism against COVID-19

Abstract Background/Introduction The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor apremilast is an approved treatment option for psoriasis. Purpose We aimed to investigate the effects of apremilast on endothelial glycocalyx, vascular and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in psoriasis. Methods Ninety patients with psoriasis were randomized to receive apremilast (n=30), anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (etanercept, n=30), or cyclosporine treatment (n=30). At baseline and 4…

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Case Report: Endothelial Glycocalyx Damage in Critically ill Patients With SARS-CoV-2-Related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C)

Endothelial insult and damage is one of the reported consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been associated with severe inflammation, thrombotic phenomena and profound hypoxemia in critically ill patients. Endothelial activation leads to a loss of the endothelium’s antithrombotic properties which, under normal conditions, are maintained by the endothelial glycocalyx, a carbohydrate-rich layer that covers the luminal surface of…

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Association of COVID-19 with impaired endothelial glycocalyx, vascular function and myocardial deformation 4 months after infection

Abstract Aims SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to endothelial and vascular dysfunction. We investigated alterations of arterial stiffness, endothelial coronary and myocardial function markers 4 months after COVID-19 infection. Methods and results In a case-control prospective study, we included 70 patients 4 months after COVID-19 infection, 70 age- and sex-matched untreated hypertensive patients (positive control) and 70 healthy individuals. We…

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Microvascular differences in individuals with obesity at risk of developing cardiovascular disease

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate microvascular differences in individuals with obesity at risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Methods In this cross-sectional Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, participant sublingual microcirculation was assessed with a newly developed GlycoCheck software (Microvascular Health Solutions Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah), which integrates red blood cell velocity within the smallest capillaries (4-7 µm)…

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