Tocilizumab improves oxidative stress and endothelial glycocalyx: A mechanism that may explain the effects of biological treatment on COVID-19

Abstract We investigated the effects of tocilizumab on endothelial glycocalyx, a determinant of vascular permeability, and myocardial function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eighty RA patients were randomized to tocilizumab (n = 40) or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and glucocorticoids (GC) (n = 40) for 3 months. Forty healthy subjects with similar age and sex served as controls….

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Sex-related associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with aortic stiffness and endothelial glycocalyx integrity in treated hypertensive patients

Abstract Smoking, a well-recognized major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, impairs endothelial function and increases aortic stiffness which indicates subclinical organ damage in hypertensive patients. Loss of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) integrity, as part of the endothelium, represents endothelial dysfunction. The authors aimed to investigate the role of increased HDL cholesterol levels (HDL-C), which usually are considered protective against CV disease,…

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Visual and Biochemical Evidence of Glycocalyx Disruption in Human Dengue Infection, and Association With Plasma Leakage Severity

Background: Dengue is the most common arboviral infection globally; a minority of patients develop shock due to profound plasma leak through a disrupted endothelial barrier. Understanding of the pathophysiology underlying plasma leak is incomplete, but emerging evidence indicates a key role for degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. Methods: We conducted an observational study in Vietnam to evaluate the sublingual…

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Immediate effects of whole blood donation on the endothelial surface layer and glycocalyx shedding

ABSTRACT Background – The endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating microvascular function, especially in situations associated with acute blood loss. Whether blood donation and the associated volume loss affects the dimensions of the endothelial surface layer (ESL) and glycocalyx integrity remains unknown. Materials and methods – This study was designed to determine real-time ESL and perfusion measurements of…

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Variability of Microcirculatory Measurements in Critically Ill Patients

Abstract Introduction: Monitoring the microcirculation may be helpful in guiding resuscitation in patients with circulatory shock. Sublingual side-stream dark field imaging cameras allow for noninvasive, bedside evaluation of the microcirculation, although their use in clinical practice has not yet been validated. The GlycoCheck system automatically analyzes images to determine glycocalyx thickness, red blood cell filling percentage, and vessel density….

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Decreased endothelial glycocalyx thickness is an early predictor of mortality in sepsis

Abstract Microcirculatory alterations play an important role in the early phase of sepsis. Shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx is regarded as a central pathophysiological mechanism causing microvascular dysfunction, contributing to multiple organ failure and death in sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endothelial glycocalyx thickness at an early stage in septic patients relates to clinical…

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Microvascular Alterations During Cardiac Surgery Using a Heparin or Phosphorylcholine-Coated Circuit

Objective Heparin biocompatible coating frequently is used to reduce inflammation and blood coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cardiac surgery. Whether heparin coating is protective or damaging to the vascular endothelium is unclear. The authors investigated whether heparin-coated (HC) circuits are associated with better preservation of microcirculatory perfusion and glycocalyx dimensions compared with nonheparin phosphorylcholine-coated (PC) circuits. Design Prospective,…

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In Vivo Imaging of the Buccal Mucosa Shows Loss of the Endothelial Glycocalyx and Perivascular Hemorrhages in Pediatric Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

ABSTRACT Severe malaria is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in considerable, systemic inflammation and pronounced endothelial activation. The endothelium forms an interface between blood and tissue, and vasculopathy has previously been linked with malaria severity. We studied the extent to which the endothelial glycocalyx that normally maintains endothelial function is involved in falciparum malaria pathogenesis by using incident…

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Does sublingual microscopy correlate with nailfold videocapillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis?

Abstract In this study, we examine sublingual videomicroscopy and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) features in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients presenting for routine care. Consented participants met classification criteria for SSc. Sublingual videomicroscopy testing was performed in each subject, followed by a NVC assessment. Sublingual assessment provided a density measurement, red blood cell fraction (RBC fract), and perfused boundary region (PBR)…

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Non-invasive evaluation of macro- and microhemodynamic changes during induction of general anesthesia – A prospective observational single-blinded trial

Abstract Background: Hypotension and bradycardia are known side effects of general anesthesia, while little is known about further macro- and microhemodynamic changes during induction. Intriguing is furthermore, why some patients require no vasopressor medication to uphold mean arterial pressure, while others need vasopressor support. Objective: Determination of macro- and microhemodynamic changes during induction of general anesthesia. Methods: We enrolled…

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