Background/Aims: The capillary wall coated by the endothelial glycocalyx is the main transport barrier during peritoneal dialysis (PD). Here, we investigated the relationships between measurements of the systemic endothelial glycocalyx and peritoneal transport in PD patients. Methods: We performed sidestream darkfield (SDF) imaging of the sublingual microvasculature in 15 patients, measured the perfused boundary region (PBR), which includes the permeable part of the glycocalyx, and calculated the estimated blood vessel density (EBVD). All patients underwent a peritoneal permeability analysis. Results: No relationships were present between the imaging and peritoneal transport parameters, neither in the group as a whole nor in fast transporters. In patients with nonfast peritoneal transport status, PBR had a negative relationship with EBVD and small solute transport, and a positive one with net ultrafiltration (NUF). The EBVD showed a positive correlation with glucose absorption and a negative one with NUF. We found no relationships with the peritoneal transport of albumin. Conclusions: No relationships are present between the systemic endothelial glycocalyx, which was assessed by SDF, and peritoneal transport. In nonfast transporters, a reduction in blood vessel density caused by endothelial glycocalyx alterations or a thicker permeable phase of the glycocalyx delaying the access of small solutes to the small pores may be important.